AUSCHWITZ CONCENTRATION CAMP

Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of German Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps built and operated by the Third Reich in Polish areas annexed by Nazi Germany during World War II. It consisted of Auschwitz I (the original camp), Auschwitz II–Birkenau (a combination concentration/extermination camp), Auschwitz III–Monowitz (a labor camp to staff an IG Farben factory), and 45 satellite camps.

Auschwitz I was first constructed to hold Polish political prisoners, who began to arrive in May 1940. The first extermination of prisoners took place in September 1941, and Auschwitz II–Birkenau went on to become a major site of the Nazi Final Solution to the Jewish Question. From early 1942 until late 1944, transport trains delivered Jews to the camp’s gas chambers from all over German-occupied Europe, where they were killed en masse with the pesticide Zyklon B. An estimated 1.3 million people were sent to the camp, of whom at least 1.1 million died. Around 90 percent of those killed were Jewish; approximately 1 in 6 Jews killed in the Holocaust died at the camp.[1][2] Others deported to Auschwitz included 150,000 Poles, 23,000 Romani and Sinti, 15,000 Soviet prisoners of war, 400 Jehovah’s Witnesses, and tens of thousands of others of diverse nationalities, including an unknown number of homosexuals. Many of those not killed in the gas chambers died of starvation, forced labor, infectious diseases, individual executions, and medical experiments.

In the course of the war, the camp was staffed by 7,000 members of the German Schutzstaffel (SS), approximately 12 percent of whom were later convicted of war crimes. Some, including camp commandant Rudolf Höss, were executed. The Allied Powers refused to believe early reports of the atrocities at the camp, and their failure to bomb the camp or its railways remains controversial. One hundred forty-four prisoners are known to have escaped from Auschwitz successfully, and on 7 October 1944, two Sonderkommando units—prisoners assigned to staff the gas chambers—launched a brief, unsuccessful uprising.

As Soviet troops approached Auschwitz in January 1945, most of its population was sent west on a death march. The prisoners remaining at the camp were liberated on 27 January 1945, a day now commemorated as International Holocaust Remembrance Day. In the following decades, survivors, such as Primo Levi, Viktor Frankl, and Elie Wiesel, wrote memoirs of their experiences in Auschwitz, and the camp became a dominant symbol of the Holocaust. In 1947, Poland founded the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum on the site of Auschwitz I and II, and in 1979, it was named a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.

İlk kurulan ana kamp Auschwitz I Polonya’nın Krakow şehrinin 60 km batısında, küçük bir şehir olan Oświęcim’in güneybatısında, Auschwitz II Oświęcim’in 3 km batısında Brzezinka (Birkenau) köyünde, I.G. Farben, Krupp, Siemens gibi fabrikalar için yapılan Auschwitz III ise Oświęcim doğusunda Monowice (Monowitz) köyünde inşa edilmiştir.

Auschwitz-Birkenau’ya tüm Avrupa’dan 1,3 milyon insan yerleştirilmiştir. Bunların, 1 milyonu Yahudi olmak üzere 1,1 milyon insanın öldürüldüğü tahmin edilmektedir. Yaklaşık 900.000 kişi kampa geldikleri anda doğrudan gaz odalarına gönderilmiş ya da vurularak öldürülmüştür. Kalan 200.000 kişi, hastalık, eksik beslenme, kötü muamele, tıbbi deneyler nedeniyle ve daha sonra gönderildikleri gaz odalarında ölmüştür. Ortalama 6 ay içinde ölen tutsaklar, en ağır şartlarda günde en az 10 saat çalıştırıldılar. Gaz odalarına gönderilirken, saç kesme, ceset toplama, yakma gibi işlemleri de yine kendileri yapıyorlardı.

İkinci Dünya Savaşı’ndan önce Auschwitz, eski adıyla Oscwinchim, yarısı Yahudi olan 14 bin kişinin yaşadığı sakin bir kasabaydı. Auschwitz ismi, Holokost sürecinde kurban olanların ve dolayısıyla II. Dünya Savaşı’ndaki Nazi dehşetinin sembolü olmuştur. Bu kamplarda, Yahudi, Roman, eşcinseller gibi Nazilerin düşman ilan ettikleri gruplar başta olmak üzere 6 milyon kişi ölmüştür.

1979 yılında UNESCO’nın İnsanlığın Kültür Mirası listesine eklenen bu iki kampın kalıntıları ve Yahudi mezarlığı, Auschwitz-Birkenau Devlet Müzesi ve Holokost anma mekânı olarak kamuya açılmıştır.